Ubhedu lubulala intsholongwane yeCorona.Ngaba oku kuyinyaniso?

E-China, yayibizwa ngokuba yi "qi," isimboli sempilo.EYiputa yayibizwa ngokuba yi-“ankh,” umfuziselo wobomi obungunaphakade.KumaFenike, le mbekiselo yayithetha into enye noAphrodite—uthixokazi wothando nobuhle.
Ezi mpucuko zamandulo zazibhekiselele kubhedu, nto leyo iinkcubeko kwihlabathi jikelele ziye zayibona njengebalulekile kwimpilo yethu ngaphezulu kweminyaka engama-5,000.Xa umkhuhlane, iibhaktheriya ezifana ne-E. coli, ii-superbugs ezifana ne-MRSA, okanye ii-coronavirus ezihlala kwindawo eqinileyo, zinokuphila ukuya kutsho kwiintsuku ezine ukuya kwezintlanu.Kodwa xa zifika phezu kobhedu, kunye neengxube zobhedu ezifana nobhedu, ziqala ukufa kwimizuzu nje embalwa kwaye azibonakali kwiiyure nje ezimbalwa.
“Sizibonile iintsholongwane zigqabhuka zahlukana,” utshilo uBill Keevil, unjingalwazi wezempilo kokusingqongileyo kwiYunivesithi yaseSouthampton.Bahlala phezu kobhedu yaye oko kuyabathoba isidima sabo.” Akumangalisi ke ngoko ukuba eIndiya, abantu bebesela kwiikomityi zobhedu kangangamawaka eminyaka.Nalapha eUnited States, intambo yobhedu izisa amanzi akho okusela.Ubhedu luyinto yendalo, i-passive, i-antimicrobial material.Iyakwazi ukuzicoca umphezulu wayo ngaphandle kwesidingo sombane okanye iblitshi.
Ubhedu lwakhula ngexesha leNguquko yezoShishino njengesixhobo sezinto, izixhobo kunye nezakhiwo.I-Copper isasetyenziswa ngokubanzi kuthungelwano lwamandla-imarike yobhedu, enyanisweni, ikhula ngenxa yokuba izinto eziphathekayo ziyi-conductor esebenzayo.Kodwa imathiriyeli iye yatyhalwa ngaphandle kwezicelo ezininzi zokwakha ngamaza ezinto ezintsha ukusuka kwinkulungwane yama-20.Iiplastiki, iglasi epholileyo, i-aluminiyam, kunye nentsimbi engenasici zizinto zesimanje-ezisetyenziselwa yonke into ukusuka kwizakhiwo ukuya kwiimveliso ze-Apple.Amaqhina ocango kunye neentsimbi zezandla ziye zaphuma kwisitayile njengoko abayili bezakhiwo kunye nabayili bekhethe izinto ezikhangeleka zintle (kwaye zihlala zitshiphu).

Ngoku uKeevil ukholelwa ukuba lixesha lokubuyisela ubhedu kwiindawo zikawonke-wonke, kunye nezibhedlele ngakumbi.Xa sijongana nekamva elingenakuthintelwa elizele zizibetho zehlabathi, kufanele ukuba sisebenzisa ubhedu kukhathalelo lwempilo, kuhambo lukawonke-wonke, kunye namakhaya ethu.Kwaye ngelixa ixesha seliphelile ukuba liyeke i-COVID-19, akukabi kudala kakhulu ukuba sicinge ngobhubhani wethu olandelayo. Izibonelelo zobhedu, zibaliwe.
Bekufanele ukuba siyibonile isiza, kwaye eneneni, kukho umntu owayibonayo.
Ngo-1983, umphandi wezonyango uPhyllis J. Kuhn wabhala ugxeko lokuqala lokunyamalala kobhedu awaluqaphela ezibhedlele.Ngexesha loqeqesho lococeko kwiziko lezoNyango laseHamot ePittsburgh, abafundi bagxothe iindawo ezahlukeneyo esibhedlele, kubandakanya izitya zangasese kunye namaqhina eminyango.Uqaphele ukuba izindlu zangasese zicocekile ziintsholongwane, ngelixa ezinye zezinto ezilungisiweyo bezimdaka kakhulu kwaye zikhule iintsholongwane eziyingozi xa zivunyelwe ukuba ziphindaphindeke kwiipleyiti zeagar.

“Amaqhosha ecango acwebezelayo nabengezelayo kunye neepleyiti zokutyhala zikhangeleka zicocekile kucango lwasesibhedlele.Ngokwahlukileyo koko, amaqhosha ecango kunye neepleyiti zobhedu olonakeleyo zikhangeleka zimdaka kwaye zingcolisa,” wabhala ngelo xesha.Kodwa kwanaxa igqabhukile, ubhedu—ingxubevange yobhedu engama-67 ekhulwini ne-zinc engama-33 ekhulwini—[ibulala iintsholongwane], ngoxa intsimbi engatyiwayo—malunga nama-88 ekhulwini ne-12% yechromium—ayikuthinteli ukukhula kwentsholongwane.”
Ekugqibeleni, wasonga iphepha lakhe ngesigqibo esilula ngokwaneleyo ukuze yonke inkqubo yezempilo ilandele.“Ukuba isibhedlele sakho siyalungiswa, zama ukugcina izixhobo zakudala zobhedu okanye uziphindaphinde;ukuba unezixhobo zentsimbi engasebenziyo, qiniseka ukuba zibulawa iintsholongwane mihla le, ngakumbi kwiindawo zokhathalelo olunzima.
Kwiminyaka emininzi kamva, kwaye ngokuvunyiweyo ngenkxaso-mali evela kuMbutho woPhuhliso lweCopper (iqela lezorhwebo lobhedu), uKeevil uye watyhalela phambili uphando lukaKuhn.Esebenza kwilebhu yakhe kunye nezona ntsholongwane ziyingozi kakhulu emhlabeni, uye wabonisa ukuba ubhedu alubulali iibhaktheriya kuphela ngokufanelekileyo;ikwabulala neentsholongwane.
Kumsebenzi kaKeevil, uthi nkxu ipleyiti yobhedu etywaleni ukuyicoca.Emva koko uyithi nkxu kwi-acetone ukuze asuse nayiphi na ioyile engaphandle.Emva koko uwisa isuntswana le pathogen phezu komhlaba.Ngemizuzu yomile.Isampulu ihlala naphi na ukusuka kwimizuzu embalwa ukuya kwiintsuku ezimbalwa.Emva koko uyihlukuhla kwibhokisi ezele ngamaso eglasi kunye nolwelo.Amaso akhuhla ibhaktiriya kunye neentsholongwane kulwelo, kwaye ulwelo lunokuthathwa isampulu ukubona ubukho bazo.Kwezinye iimeko, uye wavelisa iindlela ze-microscopy ezivumela ukuba abukele-kwaye arekhode-i-pathogen etshatyalaliswa ngobhedu xa ibetha phezulu.
Umphumo ubonakala njengomlingo, uthi, kodwa ngeli xesha, i-phenomena edlalwayo yisayensi eqondwa kakuhle.Xa intsholongwane okanye ibhaktheriya ibetha ipleyiti, izaliswe zi-ion zobhedu.Ezo ion zigqobhoza iiseli kunye neentsholongwane njengeembumbulu.Ubhedu aluzibulali nje ezi ntsholongwane;iyawatshabalalisa, ukuya kuthi ga kwi-nucleic acids, okanye iiplani zokuzala, ngaphakathi.
UKeevil uthi: “Akukho thuba lokuguquka kwemfuza [okanye indaleko] kuba yonke imizila yemfuza iyatshatyalaliswa.Le yenye yeenzuzo zokwenene zobhedu.Ngamanye amazwi, ukusebenzisa ubhedu akuzi nomngcipheko wokuba, yithi, ukumisela ngaphezulu kwe-antibiotics.Ngumbono nje olungileyo.

copper foil

Kuvavanyo lwehlabathi lokwenyani, ubhedu lungqina ukubaluleka kwalo Ngaphandle kwelebhu, abanye abaphandi balandele umkhondo wokuba ubhedu luyawenza na umahluko xa lusetyenziswa kwiimeko zokwenyani zonyango-okubandakanya amaqhina eminyango yesibhedlele ngokuqinisekileyo, kodwa kunye neendawo ezinjengeebhedi zesibhedlele, iindwendwe- izihlalo zengalo, kunye ne-IV stands.Ngo-2015, abaphandi abasebenza kwisibonelelo seSebe lezoKhuselo bathelekisa amazinga osulelo kwizibhedlele ezithathu, kwaye bafumanisa ukuba xa i-alloys yobhedu isetyenziswe kwizibhedlele ezithathu, yanciphisa izinga losulelo nge-58%.Uphononongo olufanayo lwenziwa ngo-2016 ngaphakathi kwiyunithi yokhathalelo lwabantwana, ebonisa ukuhla okuchukumisayo okufanayo kwinqanaba losulelo.
Kodwa kuthekani ngeendleko?Ubhedu luhlala lubiza kakhulu kuneplastiki okanye i-aluminiyam, kwaye kaninzi i-pricier alternative kwintsimbi.Kodwa ngenxa yokuba usulelo oluqhutywa esibhedlele luxabisa inkqubo yokhathalelo lwempilo ukuya kuthi ga kwi-45 yeebhiliyoni zeedola ngonyaka-singasathethi ke ngokubulala abantu abaninzi njenge-90,000-indleko yokuphucula ubhedu ayinanto xa kuthelekiswa.

National-Grid-Professional-Copper-Foil
U-Keevil, ongasayifumani inkxaso-mali kwishishini lobhedu, ukholelwa ukuba uxanduva luwela kubakhi bezakhiwo ukukhetha ubhedu kwiiprojekthi ezintsha zokwakha.I-Copper yayiyeyokuqala (kwaye ukuza kuthi ga ngoku yeyokugqibela) i-antimicrobial surface metal evunywe yi-EPA.(Iinkampani kwishishini lesilivere zizamile kwaye zahluleka ukubiza ukuba yi-antimicrobial, nto leyo eyakhokelela kwisohlwayo se-EPA.) Amaqela oshishino lobhedu abhalise ngaphezu kwe-400 ye-alloys yobhedu kunye ne-EPA ukuza kuthi ga ngoku.“Sibonise i-nickel yethusi ifana nobhedu ekubulaleni ibhaktheriya kunye neentsholongwane,” utshilo.Kwaye i-nickel yobhedu ayifuni kukhangeleka njengexilongo elidala;ayibonakali kwintsimbi engatyiwayo.
Ngokubhekiselele kwezinye izakhiwo zehlabathi ezingekahlaziywa ukuze zikrazule izixhobo zakudala zobhedu, uKeevil unecebiso: “Musa ukuzisusa, nantoni na oyenzayo.Ezi zezona zinto zintle onazo.”


Ixesha lokuposa: Nov-25-2021